ARRAU was a project funded by the EPSRC, grant number GR/S76434/01, that ran from 2004 to 2007.

Project Description


The objective of the ARRAU project was to study the cases of anaphoric reference most problematic for current anaphora resolution systems, in particular:

  • Reference to plurals
  • Reference to abstract objects such as events and plans
  • Ambiguous anaphoric expressions

Theoretical goals

  • Revise current models of the interpretation of plurals and events
  • Develop a model of reference to plans
  • Evaluate hypotheses about underspecification in reference to structured objects
  • Yield a better understanding of the phenomenon of (semantic) underspecification


  • Corpus analysis and annotation (University of Essex)
    • Identify questions to be studied through psychological studies
    • Produce an annotated corpus
  • Psychological experiments (University of Glasgow)
    • Provide empirical evidence to be used to modify our existing anaphora resolution system, which will be evaluated using the annotated corpus